Laboratory tests are the most crucial aspect of modern medicine. The world of medicine is a vast field, and laboratory medicine is one of the most reliable and widely used diagnostic approaches to support clinical decision-making. Laboratory medicine is an integral part of evidence-based medicine. It can be used not only to confirm or exclude a diagnosis, to assess the severity and prognosis of the disease, to understand the pathophysiology and natural development history of the disease but also to screen asymptomatic patients and enable early detection of disease. Laboratory medicine is an essential part of modern medicine. This rapidly evolving science has become more and more complex and sophisticated as the increasing need of advanced diagnostic methods, and the blossoming of biomedical information and technology have led to the start of a second revolution in laboratory medicine.